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Road Map for Osm2pgsql

Current as of 2024-03-31.

This document is a kind of road map for osm2pgsql development. It’s not to be understood as a definite “this is what we’ll do” document, but as a rough overview of the shared understanding of the maintainers about where we are and in what areas we see need for work. It is incomplete.

Where We Are: A Stable Platform

First and foremost osm2pgsql must be a stable and reliable platform for its many users who use it every day to maintain current maps. Backwards compatibility is important and must be kept wherever possible. This makes developing new features more difficult, but it gives the users a way forward, using new features as they are needed without the need for a break-the-world update.

This also means that often ongoing maintenance, bugfixing, attending to issues, making sure everything keeps working with old and new library and operating system versions etc. is more important than new features.

The development mostly is done on Linux and most users use osm2pgsql on Linux. Osm2pgsql must work well on all current and some older versions of major Linux distributions.

Because we currently have no Windows or macOS developers the support for these operating systems is “best effort”, we try to keep it working but can not promise anything.

Only 64 bit systems are supported.

Osm2pgsql currently needs a C++17 compiler, switching to newer C++ versions will be considered based on availability in the Linux distributions we want to support.

Osm2pgsql must always support all officially supported versions of PostgreSQL (currently 11 and above) and maybe more. Some optional features might only be supported in newer PostgreSQL versions.

Osm2pgsql wants to be as resource-friendly as possible. It must always be possible to use it with small data extracts on a hobbyists laptop. Processing the full planet file and running minutely updates must be possible on a reasonably modern machine (128GB RAM, SSD).

Where We Want to Go

The following sections describe major topics or areas of work. They are roughly ordered from the more important, simpler, more near-term to the less important, more complex, more “out there” ideas. This does not imply an order in which problems will be tackled (or even whether they will be tackled at all).

We also have a list of project ideas with more long-term projects.

Note that many of the following topics overlap. Some topics have related issues which are listed below, but not all open concerns appear in Github issues. Some major “big picture” issues are highlighted at the top of the Github issues page.

Ongoing Maintainance

There is always the ongoing maintainance. Making sure everything runs with old and new versions of the libraries we use and on old and new versions of operating systems.

Code Cleanup and Modernization

Osm2pgsql started as a C program, later it was converted to C++03, then to C++11, C++14, and C++17. Most of the code has been cleaned up over the years, but there is still some old code in there that could do with some cleanup. And there are still some places where code linting tools such as clang-tidy report potential problems.

The goal is to have clean and modern code that’s easy to understand and change. This is especially important to make it easier for non-core developers to contribute.

This cleanup work is mostly something that can be done “on the side” whenever that particular piece of code is touched anyway.

The main places left which need updating in this regard is the expire code.


In 2020 the documentation for osm2pgsql has moved to a new website at Lots of examples have been put on the website, too. There is still work to be done to complete the docs. This can be done “on the side” whenever it makes sense. It would also be nice to amend the documentation with some tutorials and how-to type documents.

Configuration / Command Line

Currently a lot of osm2pgsql options are only available through the command line and most likely there will be more things we want configurable in the future. We’ll need to think about a more consistent story what options are available where, how they interact and how to configure things that go beyond the option=value paradigm.

Where possible we should differentiate clearly between style configuration (everything related to tags etc.) and operational configuration (cache sizes, file names, etc.)


Progress Output and Logging

While running osm2pgsql produces a lot of output telling the user what’s going on. But the output is sometimes inconsistent, sometimes osm2pgsql goes for a long time without any output (especially when building indexes). With the better logging code in 1.4.0 the situation is now much improved, but there are still places where it can be done better.


Object Store / Middle / Flat Node Store

To be able to resolve relations between objects (nodes in ways, members in relations) and to update its database from OSM change files, osm2pgsql needs to keep an object store of all OSM objects it has seen and their relationship with each other. This is often called “middle” in osm2pgsql-speak. It comes in two “flavours” depending on whether it supports updates or not.

The updatable middle uses the PostgreSQL database. Due to its current structure and API only some information is available, for instance it isn’t possible to find node members of relations.

In 1.9.0 we released a major update to the database middle in 1.11.0 this became the default. The legacy database middle will be remove in 2.0.0.

In the future we might need some caching mechanism so that expensive database operations can be avoided as much as possible if the same information is asked for multiple times.

The flat node store is also part of this topic. We need to re-think the structure of the middle, the integration of the flat node store and caching mechanism in a unified way.

A lot of the other topics mentioned below rely on a flexible and performant middle.

As a possible future step we might want to look into (optionally) removing the need for PostgreSQL for the updatable object store. Specialized file-based data storage could improve performance considerably and reduce disk consumption at the same time.


Future of the Outputs

The flex output has taken some great strides in the last years and has been used in production environments for a long time. Some originally missing features have been added and it is ready to replace the other outputs. Users should all be able to switch to the flex output without missing any features they had in any of the other outputs. The multi output was already removed in version 1.5.0. The gazetteer output is already marked as deprecated and will be removed soon. Long term we want to also remove the pgsql output, but there is no timeline yet.

Most new features are only be available in the flex output.

Processing Flexibility and Performance

osm2pgsql processes data in several steps: Database tables are created, then data is imported, then clustered, then indexes created. Some of those steps are already configurable, but there is a lot of hardcoded logic in here. Users have repeatedly asked for more flexibility, for instance for index creation, which is now much more flexible.

We need some way of making this more configurable without breaking backwards compatibility and without making the common use case too complicated. How to best do this is currently unclear. The direction we have been going in with the Lua configuration points towards a possible solution: Move more of the decisions about what needs to be done into Lua, keeping the how in C++. Then most users can use higher level Lua functions that hide some of the complexity, but power users can still access lower-level functionality to solve their specific needs.

Another issue which probably fits in here are performance aspects of the processing steps and possible performance improvements to be gained here for instance by caching.


Tile Expiry

Osm2pgsql can generate a list of tiles that need to be expired due to updates to the database. It is memory intensive and the performance could probably be improved.

This needs a deep look into what users actually need (the OSMF tile servers don’t even use this but have a different way of calculating expired tiles) and how we can best support it. We should also think about whether we can do expiry calculations based on output tables, not data input. This ties in with the generalization work mentioned below, because – in a way – expire lists are also just generalizations of geometries.


Debugging and Testing Support for Style Writers

The flex output introduces a lot of flexibility and we should find ways of aiding the style writers with testing and debugging their Lua config files. The new BDD testing framework used points into an interesting direction here.


PostgreSQL and PostGIS Features

Since osm2pgsql was first developed the capabilities of PostgreSQL and PostGIS have grown tremendously and we haven’t always kept up to be able to take advantage of new features like JSON(B) columns or GENERATED columns or new index types. In some cases our understanding of what the database is doing has improved and changes could introduce performance gains.

Currently osm2pgsql opens a lot more database connections and keeps them open longer than probably needed. There is some room for improvement there.


Better Relation Support

Currently osm2pgsql only supports multipolygon, boundary, and route relations in any meaningful way. Other relation types such as turn restrictions and destination signs should be supported explicitly.

Ideally there should also be better mechanisms to work with any relation type but it is unclear what this could look like beyond writing them to the database as a GeometryCollection which is possible in version 1.7.0.

This is an area where we need more input from users to see what their needs are.

Advanced Geometry Options and Generalization

One area where osm2pgsql is lacking in functionality is advanced geometry handling. Historically all it did was creating point geometries from nodes and linestring or polygon geometries from ways and relations. With version 1.7.0 and especially version 1.9.0 with explicit generalization support this has improved a lot, but there is still some way to go.

This is explored in the generalization project.


Release Management

We do releases “whenever the time is right”, lately this has been about twice per year. Plus smaller bug fix releases in between.

Sometime in 2024 we plan to release a 2.0.0 that will remove some deprecated features.